The earth is made up of five elements (bhuta). These are earth, wind sky, water and energy. There are seven regions in the underworld (patala). These are known as atala, sutala, vitala, gabhastala, mahatala, shritala and patala. The ground in atala is dark in colour; in sutala it is pale; vitala has ground that is red; in gabhastala the ground becomes yellow; in mahataka it is white; there are numerous stones and boulders in shritala; but in patala, the ground is laced with gold. Snakes and demons live in the underworld. Atala is ruled by the demon Namuchi; sutala by the demon Mahajambha; vitala by the demon Prahlada; gabhastala by the demon Kalanemi: mahatala by the demon Virochana; shritala by the demon Kesari; and patala by the demon Vali.
The great snake Vasuki lives in shritala and the great snake Shesha lives in patala. (Vasuki is a king of the snakes (nagas). He was the son of Daksha‘s daughter Kadru and the sage Kashyapa. Usually, Vasuki and Shesha are regarded as synonymous, the name Ananta also being used.) The eyes of the snake Shesha are like red lotuses. His complexion is white and he wears blue is thousand hoods glow with radiance.
Just as ther are seven lokas which consitiute the neither regions, there are seven lokas which constitute the upper regions. The universe consists of fourteen lokas. The seven loka which form the upper regions are named bhuloka, bhuvarloka, svaroka, maharloka, janaloka, tapaloka and satyaloka.
The smallest unit of time is a nimesha, the time it takes of the eyes to blink. Fifteen nimeshas constitute a kashtha, thirty kashitas are a kala, thirty kalas make a muhurta and there are thirty muhurtas in the space of one night and one day (ahoratra). The thirty muhurtas in a day are divided into ten units, each unit consisting of three muhurtas. The unit that corresponds to the time of sunrise is known as prata (dawn). The next unit is called sangava (forenoon). Forenoon is followed by madhyahna (noon). Next come aparahna (afternoon) and sayahna (evening). These five units made up of fifteen muhurtas, form the day. There is an equal number of muhurtas in the night. This should not be taken to mean that day and night are always equal. Sometimes the day is longer than the night and sometimes the night is longer than the day. Day and night are equal twice a year. These two occasions are the precise midpoints of early autumn (sharat) and spring (vasanta). Fifteen days make up one paksha (fornight) and there are two pakshas in every masa (month). Two masas form a ritu (season) and three ritus are called an ayana. There are therefore two ayanas in every varha (year). The months Magha, Falguna, Chaitra, Vaishakha, Jyaishtha and Ashada are referred to as uttarayana. Correspondingly, the months Shravana, Bhadra, Ashvina, Kartika, Agrahayan and Pousha are referred to as dakshinayana.
Svayambhuva Manu had two sons named Uttanapada and Priyavrata. Priyavrata‘s descendants have already been mentioned. Uttanapada had a son named Dhruva. Dhruva pleased Vishnu through his tapasya and obtained the boon that a place would be reserved for him in the sky. Dhruva became the Pole Star. This is in the constellation of Shishumara (Ursa Minoris or the Little Bear). The moon, the sun, the planets and the stars, all revolve around Dhruva.
The sun‘s chariot is made of gold and is drawn by seven horses. These horses are named Gayatri, Trishtupa, Anushtupa, Jagati, Pamkti, Vrihati and Ushnika. There are twelve adityas. In each month, two adityas, two sages. Two gandharvas, two apsaras and two rakshasa (demons) ride on the sun‘s chariot together with the sun. This is as follows. (i) The months Chaitra and Vaishakha – the adityas Dhata and Aryama; the sages Pulastya and Pulaha; the gandharvas Tumburu and Narada; the apsaras Kratushthala and Ppunjikasthala; and the rakshasas Heti and Praheti. (ii) The months Jyaishtha and Ashada – the adityas Mitra and Varuna; the sages Atri and Vashishtha; the gandharvas Haha and Huhu; the apsaras Menaka and Sahajanya; and the rakshasas Pourusheya and Vadha. (iii) The months Shravana and Bhadra – the adityas Indra and Vivasvana; the sages Angira and Bhrigu; the gandharvas Vishvavasu and Ugrasena; the apsaras Promlacha and Nimlocha; and the rakshasa Vyaghra and Shveta. (iv) The months Ashvina and Kartika – the adityas Parjanaya and Pusha; the sages Bharadvaja and Goutama, the gandharvas Vishvavasu and Surabhi; the apsaras Vishvachi and Ghritachi; and the rakshasas Apa and Vata. (v) The months Agrahayana and Pousha – the adityas Amsha and Bhaga; the sages Kashyapa and Ritu; the gandharvas Chitrasena and Urnayu; the apsaras Urvashi and Viprachitti; and the rakshasas Vidyut and Sfurjja. (vi) The months Magha and Falguna – the adityas Tvashta and Jishnu; the sages Jamadagni and Vishvamitra; the gandharvas Dhritarashtra and Suryavarcha; the apsaras Tilottama and Rambha; and the rakshasas Brahmopeta and Yajnopeta.
The moon‘s chariot is drawn by ten horses. These horses are named Yayu, Trimana, Vrisha, Raji, Bala, Vasa, Turanya, Hamsa, Vyomi and Mriga. Budha‘s (Mercy) chariot is drawn by eight horses; Shukra‘s (Venus) by ten; Mangala‘s (Mars) by eight; and Brihaspati‘s (Jupiter) and Shani‘s (Saturn) also by eight.