Tapa was a deva (god) who was born of the tapas (austerities) of five sages: Kasyapa, Vasishtha, Pranaka, Cyavana, and Trivarcas. Hence, he was also known by the name Panca-janya (one born of five). He can be said to be the personification of tapas. However, the Mahabharata added that Tapa had his own sons: Purandara, Ushman, Prajapati Manu, Shambhu, and Ava Sathya—all obscure enough. To these sons were added the five urjaskaras, five sons of sacrifice, and the his final son—Parishranta, the exhausted sun. Tapa’s mother was not mentioned.