What of Kashyapa‘s wife Danu? Her sons came to be known as the danavas (demons). Muni gave birth to the gandharvas (singers of heaven) and apsaras (dancers of heaven). Vinata had two sons named Aruna and Garuda. Their sisters were the mothers of all the birds. Kadru gave birth to the snakes (nagas). Chief among them were Shesha, Vasuki and Takshaka. Khasa gave birth to sons. These sons were exceedingly ugly. The yakshas (demi-gods who were companions of the god Kubera) were descended from the elder brother and the rakshasas (demons) were descended from the younger brother. Surasa‘s sons were other rakshasas. Ira was the mother of all trees and herbs. Krodhavasha gave birth to the ghosts (pishachas). Tamra‘s children were wild animals.

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